SCCS has been involved in the production of several reports as a result of collaborative research projects. These reports provide vital information which will facilitate the development of carbon capture and storage. Download our currently available reports from the list below.

Aquifer Brine


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  • 123 pp

The impact of brine production on aquifer storage of captured CO₂

This project aimed to assess the potential for brine production through dedicated wells in target Carbon Dioxide (CO₂) storage formations to increase CO₂ storage capacity and reduce overall cost of storage - as well as any other potential benefits for CO₂ store operators associated with brine production.

Brine production is proposed as a method to manage pressure in storage sites, as a corollary to water injection during hydrocarbon extraction. In the case of CO₂ storage, the concept is that the production of water creates voidage to increase storage capacity and reduce the extent of pressure increase due to CO₂ injection. This in turn reduces the risk of caprock failure, fault reactivation and induced seismicity. Additionally, brine production reduces the energy available to drive fluids through legacy well paths and other potential seep features.

This ETI-funded study was carried out by Heriot-Watt University and Element Energy. T2 Petroleum Technology and Durham University also participated in the project. It built on earlier CCS research work and helped develop understanding of potential CO₂ stores, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs or saline aquifers, located beneath UK waters.


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  • 17pp

Geothermal Energy in Scotland - A synthesis report covering four feasibility studies

This report was prepared at the request of ClimateXChange for the Scottish Government Heat and Energy Efficiency Unit. It summarises the key findings of feasibility study reports from four projects carried out under the Geothermal Energy Challenge Fund, part of the Low Carbon Infrastructure Transition Programme. The report gives a very brief overview of each project, followed by key learning points and summaries of findings from each project under the headings Technical, Economic and Environmental.

The Scottish Government has published the report under its business, industry and energy topics, along with the original four feasibility studies. A separate bibliography of key literature resources for geothermal energy in Scotland was prepared following a supplementary request.

Although SCCS has no remit for geothermal energy, Scottish Government were looking for an unbiased appraisal of the projects and SCCS was approached as having the required capabilities. The work was funded by ClimateXChange.


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  • 44pp

SCCS Conference 2015 Report

This report, published on 23 March 2016, derives from the SCCS 2015 Conference, which brought together policymakers, industry, academia and representatives from Scottish, UK and European governments. It presents the UK’s unique set of assets and opportunities that can create a viable route to a zero-carbon economy.


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  • 76pp

CO2MultiStore Joint Industry Project

The SCCS CO2MultiStore Joint Industry Project has now published findings from an innovative study of rocks beneath the North Sea, which predict that the secure and permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) within a single geological storage formation can be optimised by injecting CO2 at more than one point simultaneously.

Research by scientists and prospective site operators focused on a North Sea case study – the Captain Sandstone – and used cutting-edge methods, which will, in future, reduce the effort and resources needed to characterise other extensive storage sandstones that could be suitable for CO2 storage.

The findings could help to unlock an immense CO2 storage resource underlying all sectors of the North Sea for the storage of Europe’s carbon emissions, and will inform the work of those managing and operating this natural asset.


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  • 7.2 MB
  • 88pp

CO₂ storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery in the North Sea: Securing a low-carbon future for the UK

The SCCS CO₂-EOR Joint Industry Project (JIP) has published the results from a collaborative programme of work to develop an understanding of CO₂-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), with the aim of creating a commercial use for CO2 captured from power plants and industry.

The report, CO₂ storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery in the North Sea: Securing a low-carbon future for the UK, includes two-page summary reports from each of the work packages. It begins with key findings and a 12-page introduction describing the project and its results.

The project is led by SCCS partners and funding has been provided by the Scottish Government, Scottish Enterprise, 2Co Energy Limited, Nexen Petroleum UK Ltd and Shell.

The work has focused on addressing issues that are of major importance to project developers, who are looking to link CO₂-EOR in the North Sea with CCS projects.


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  • 9.9 MB
  • 33pp

A CCS future for Europe:
catalysing North Sea action

SCCS Recommendations and Conference Report 2014

The SCCS Annual Conference 2014, held in Edinburgh on 29 October, brought together European and international experts from government, industry and academia to discuss the North Sea region and its unique set of assets as an enabler of CCS for Europe. This report delivers key findings from three focus group discussions and sets out a ten-point plan for European policymakers as they consider climate and energy objectives to 2030.


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  • 6.1 MB
  • 40pp

Unlocking North Sea CO2 Storage for Europe:
Practical actions for the next five years

The deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) on industrial CO2 sources and power generation is essential if Europe is to meet its long-term climate change objectives, retain jobs and improve competitiveness. But CCS is impossible without the availability of CO2 storage. The recommendations set out in this report – which draw on presentations and discussions at the SCCS Conference 2013 – identify how Europe can unlock the North Sea as a shared CO2 storage resource.


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  • 4pp

Tackling industry’s carbon emissions: drivers and barriers to CO₂ capture in Scotland

Scotland’s process and manufacturing industries are key to its prosperity, yet environmental regulation and rising pressure from the EU ETS will increasingly affect investment and operating costs.

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can form part of a carbon abatement strategy for Scotland’s industry. The economic barriers could be lowered by using existing infrastructure and shared plant, and by forming CO₂ capture clusters with large-scale emitters from both power and industry sectors. These clusters will be essential for the effective deployment of CCS. There may also be first-mover opportunities for existing or innovative products and services in global markets catalysed by a growing CO₂ capture, transport and storage industry.



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SiteChar Characterisation of European CO2 Storage
Deliverable N° D8.3 Public Outreach Activities

The European project, SiteChar, brought together experts from academia, industry and government from 17 organisations – including British Geological Survey (BGS) – in nine European Union countries. Its research focused on five potential European storage sites, representing different geological contexts. This report describes how the project shared generic and site-specific information about site explorations with the general public, including the local public at the Scottish site (an offshore hydrocarbon field and aquifer) and at the Polish site (an onshore gas field).

SCCS CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery Joint Industry Project

The SCCS CO2-EOR Joint Industry Project (JIP) was established to undertake a collaborative programme of work to develop an understanding of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), with the aim of creating a commercial use for CO2 captured from power plants and industry. The technology, which has been used in North America for decades, could potentially store 75 million tonnes of CO2, initially from power plant CCS projects, and increase oil recovery from reservoirs beneath the North Sea by 5 to 25 percent. The process involves injecting CO2 into partially depleted oilfields deep beneath the seabed to force out additional volumes of oil, with the majority of the injected CO2 remaining permanently stored deep underground. Although to date there has been no supply of CO2 to support implementation of industrial scale CO2-EOR in the North Sea, the industrial scale development of CCS could change this.


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  • 2.6 MB
  • 24pp

Central North Sea - CO2 Storage Hub
Enabling CCS Deployment in the UK and Europe

When it comes to making CCS a reality in the UK, Scotland has an unmoveable and unique advantage. Nowhere else in the UK is as close to the geologically near-perfect, and technically diverse, sub-surface CO2 storage sites of the Central North Sea.

Deep beneath the waters of the Moray Firth, the Captain Sandstone alone has already been shown to have enough capacity to safely store the next fifty years of emissions from UK fossil fuelled power plant. Nearby, another ten reservoirs can easily hold one hundred year’s worth of Europe’s CO2 emissions.



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  • 45 MB
  • 200pp

CO2 Aquifer Storage Site Evaluation and Monitoring (CASSEM)
Understanding the challenges of CO2 storage: results of the CASSEM Project

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a crucial technology to enable the decarbonisation of fossil fuel electricity generation. The UK has considerable potential for geological storage of CO2 under the North Sea and extensive offshore industry experience that could be applied. While initial storage is likely to be undertaken in depleted oil and gas fields, much larger saline aquifer formations are estimated to have sufficient capacity to securely contain 100 years of current UK fossil fuel power plant CO2 emissions.

The CO2 Aquifer Storage Site Evaluation and Monitoring (CASSEM) project brings together the experience and different working practices of utilities, offshore operators, engineering contractors, and academic researchers to build collective understanding and develop expertise. CASSEM produced both new scientific knowledge and detailed insight into the CCS industry, developing best-value methods for the evaluation of saline aquifer formations for CO2 storage. Alongside work to assess the storage potential of two saline aquifer formations in close proximity to large coal power plant, CASSEM applied a novel Features, Events and Processes method to explore perceptions of risk in the work undertaken. This identified areas of industry and research community uncertainty and unfamiliarity to enable targeted investment of resource to reduce overall project risk. An openly accessible and flexible full chain (CO2 capture, transport and storage) costing model was developed allowing the CCS community to assess and explore overall costs. CASSEM's work also included the first use of citizen panels in the regions investigated for storage to assess public perception and educate the general public about CCS.



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  • 72pp

Progressing Scotland's CO2 storage opportunities

Scotland can realise the employment, economic and environmental benefits of carbon storage. A consortium of Scottish Government, industry and researchers has shown that rocks deep beneath the Moray Firth are capable of storing decades of CO2 output from Scotland's power stations. This emerging Carbon Capture and Storage {CCS} industry could create at least 13,000 new Scottish jobs by 2020.

These are key findings of the report, ‘Progressing Scotland’s CO2 storage opportunities’, which was unveiled at a media launch hosted by Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage {SCCS} and the Scottish Energy Minister Jim Mather MSP.

Detailed research calculates that rock, known as the Captain Sandstone, buried more than half a mile beneath the Moray Firth could store at least 15 years, and potentially a century’s worth of CO2 output from Scotland’s power industry. Professor Eric Mackay from SCCS said "This is an exciting and landmark moment in the development of carbon capture and storage. The Captain Sandstone is just one of many rock formations filled with salt water in the central and northern North Sea. We have shown that this is a feasible site that could store massive amounts of CO2, helping the UK meet its targets for carbon emissions reduction. The future potential for this and other areas of the North Sea is immense."

The SCCS research, funded by Scottish Government and a group of businesses within the energy sector, also showed that carbon capture and storage could create 13,000 jobs in Scotland by 2020, and another 14,000 elsewhere in the UK, spread across a wide range of skills. This would increase in subsequent years. Properly developed, the UK’s share of worldwide carbon capture and storage business could be worth more than £10 billion a year by around 2025.



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  • 5.4 MB
  • 56pp

Opportunities for CO2 Storage around Scotland; An Integrated Strategic Research Study

This is the most comprehensive and fully integrated study performed in the UK, and was achieved by a collaborative partnership of Scottish Government, research universities and institutes, and a broad base of support from industry and business.

The conclusions show that Scotland has an extremely large CO2 storage resource. This is overwhelmingly in offshore saline aquifers (deeply buried porous sandstones filled with salt water) together with a few specific depleted hydrocarbon fields. The resource can easily accommodate the industrial CO2 emissions from Scotland for the next 200 years. There is very likely to be sufficient storage to allow import of CO2 from NE England, this equating to over 25% of future UK large industry and power CO2 output. Preliminary indications are that Scotland’s offshore CO2 storage capacity is very important on a European scale, comparable with that of offshore Norway, and greater than Netherlands, Denmark and Germany combined.


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Date : Tuesday, 25 June 2019
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